Weaving Loom

 

stativeHome weaving is the bearer of an art of great variety and richness what compose specific and delighting ornaments. Home weaving is the proof of the great skillfulness of women, their fantasy and creative nature. The ways of preparing the raw materials (wool, hemp and flax), the threads and even the weaving, up to their final state are differentiated according to the nature of their raw material, the type of weaving and its destination.

 

 

Within the Moldavian interior, these products are situated in the category of valuable pieces, being remarkable by their variety and the refinery with which they are decorated. Geometrical or flowery ornaments are made through the weaving technique. The weaving loom is practiced especially by women. Ornamental compositions of great artistic value are made using the art of weaving loom with wool and cotton threads in a discreet chromatic display of vegetal colours. What is remarkable is the “vegetal” motif in stylized stem with oblique branches, having a rhomboidal flower at its end. The covers with the motif “the tree of life”, spread on all the central “field”, are of a chromatic refinery and of a plastic expressivity which is rarely met.

 

Brief history

 

Ancient instrument and permanently used for a long time, the weaving loom is spread at us, as well as at the other peoples, in the horizontal side. The archeological discoveries and the documents from different ages certify the experience of a primary loom, the vertical one, which existed for a long time all over Europe. Having the size of the height of a man, the primary vertical loom could be used only for weaving pretty small parts, that was the fact because the texture was not stretched enough and not uniform as aspect.

 

Step by step, the vertical loom started to be replaced by the horizontal one, at which the texture is wrapped from the first roll to another, placed at a certain distance, on which the weaving was formed. Step by step, the components of the horizontal weaving loom have been completed with different devices which assure obtaining weaving according to the foreseen destinations.

 

In Neamt area, the trade of weaving is a job practiced since immemorial times, being a job specific to women, through which they used to make both interior and dressing objects. This has developed in time, coming to extraordinary accomplishments concerning the working techniques and the decorating methods. The trade of weaving was a major care in most of the house-holds.

 

Materials and working techniques

 

The raw materials used in the trade of weaving were hemp, flax and wool, raw materials made in their own house-holds. From flax and hemp there used to weave linen from which there used to make different costume pieces (shirts for both men and women, towels for the head) and pieces to decorate the interior of the house, as well (towels, sheets for the bed and for covering the clothes), pillow sheets, table cloth, curtains. The wool was used to weave the interior textures (carpets, wall carpets) and the costume pieces (coarse-stuff peasant coats, peasant homespun skirts, girdles, bags etc).

 

What is to be remembered is the fact that in the 19th century, at weaving the carpets, the texture was made from hair out of wool, which had certain qualities: strong, elastic, was easily spun. Great attention is paid to the texture thread, this representing the skeleton for each texture. As filling, there was used a kind of soft wool, thicker, less twisted, which permitted an easier dying. Starting from the 20th century, hair was replaced by cotton or hemp. The trade of weaving – crossing the texture with the filling – has been kept till today.

 

Concerning the raw materials that are used, correlated with the product’s destination, the threads of texture and filling were undergoing a long making process. Therefore, in order to achieve wool products, shaving the sheep is followed by washing the wool, carding, combing, brushing through spindles and spinning. There were used some known tools: brushes, spindles, reeling device, etc. that way prepared, the wool was woven.

 

The kind of weaving loom was the horizontal one. This has as main components: the texture roll, the spindles, the shafts, the weaver’s reed, the weaving roll, the steps, the pulleys, the shovel, the discharger. Each of these components has a well-defined part and cannot be replaced, no matter the destination of the weaving that is going to be made. As preparing operations for the weaving itself there can be mentioned: warping – on the warper, wrapping – on the texture roll, drawing – through the shafts, the weaver’s reed and attaching it to the weaving roll. The carding threads are prepared according to the raw materials and the product’s destination, on patterns with the help of which they are put into the texture, according to the disposition given by the drawing.

 

The carpets are sewn in two shafts, and the strips of carpet in two or four shafts. The simplest weaving system, the one in two shafts, has been complicated by the selection that offers bigger possibilities of decorating the texture. The motif of selection is isolated and appears at great distance on the background’s surface or can be combined with other motifs. The weaving through selection can be made in three ways: weaving with holes, weaving in a compact way and weaving “in and over treads”.

 

pomul_vietiiRegarding the decorations, the simplest ornament is the stripe, simple stripes in different colours, which come across the strip of carpet from one border to another. Through selection, there can gradually be achieved more complicated motifs, as the star, the rhomb. That is how the carpets with rhomb appeared, the rhomb representing the solar motif, which is cared for by all the weavers from the whole Moldavia and not only. The variety in which the weavers in the Neamt area succeed in representing the motif of the rhomb is a real art which gives value to this weaving. Really valuable are also the carpets in which there can be met the motif of the “tree of life” having the shape of the pine branch – Thracian-Geta pattern.

 

The towels, the table cloths are remarkable by a genuine simplicity of the ornaments and colours. Being woven in two shafts from cotton linen, the towels usually have, at their both borders, one frieze of reduced dimensions which contains geometrical or flowery motifs. A true collection of numerous towels nicely made was discovered in Raucesti commune. The table cloths, usually made in two parts put together by hand-made lace, impress by the simplicity of the ornaments and the good taste.

 

 

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